The exact cause of oesophageal cancer is unknown, but certain things can increase the risk of it developing.
GORD and Barrett's oesophagus
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a condition in which a weakness in the muscles above the stomach means stomach acid can travel up into the oesophagus.
In around 1 in 10 people with GORD, repeated damage from stomach acid over many years can eventually cause changes in the cells lining the oesophagus. This is called Barrett's oesophagus.
These abnormal cells are at an increased risk of becoming cancerous in the future, although the risk is still small. It's estimated that one in every 10-20 people with Barrett's oesophagus will develop cancer within 10-20 years.
Drinking too much alcohol causes irritation and inflammation in the lining of the oesophagus.
If the cells in the lining of your gullet become inflamed, they're more likely to become cancerous.
Read more about alcohol and drinking, including tips on cutting down.
Tobacco smoke contains many harmful toxins and chemicals. These substances irritate the cells that make up the lining of the oesophagus, which increases the likelihood that they will become cancerous.
The longer you smoke, the greater your risk of developing oesophageal cancer.
Read more about getting help to stop smoking.
If you're overweight or obese, your risk of developing cancer of the oesophagus is higher than people of a healthy weight. The more overweight you are, the higher the risk.
This may be partly because obese people are more at risk of developing GORD and Barrett's oesophagus (see above).
Read more information and advice about losing weight.
Not eating enough fruit and vegetables may increase your risk of getting oesophageal cancer.
You should aim to eat at least five portions of fresh fruit and vegetables every day.
Read more about having a healthy diet.
Other medical conditions
Certain rare medical conditions can also increase your chances of developing cancer of the oesophagus, including:
- achalasia – where the oesophagus loses the ability to move food along, causing vomiting and acid reflux
- Paterson-Brown Kelly syndrome (also called Plummer Vinson syndrome) – a condition that can cause iron deficiency anaemia and small growths in the throat
- tylosis – an inherited skin condition